Foeniculum Vulgare (Fennel) is an ancient seasonal plant. Fennel plant originated in the southern Mediterranean and grows wild naturalized and cultivated throughout North, East, West, and especially in Asia, North America and Europe. It is cultivated and grows wild in the fields. F. vulgare is a straight branched perennial plant, with soft, fluffy leaves grows up to 60 cm in height. It has a green, smooth, slippery and stiff stem, upright branches and divided into linear segments. Twigs are 5-30 in number with 1-6 cm length. The flowers are small, yellowish in color. Fruits are oblong to ovoid 3-5 mm long and 1.5-2.0 mm wide. Stylopodium persists on the fruit. The fruits are elongated and strong ribs. The fruits are used mainly for medical purposes.
Chemical composition – Fruits contain volatile oil consisting of anethole, limonene, α-pinene, fenchone, esdragol etc. Phellandrene (sweet taste), lipids, aleurone, flavonol-3-glucuronide, coumarin derivatives, flavonoids (quercetin or kaempferoglicoside), sugars, minerals, mucilage, wax, stigmasterine.
Properties – Antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, stomachic, gastric sedative, laxative, diuretic, galactogen, tonic, anthelmintic, anti-parasitic, nervous sedative, with calming, aphrodisiac, anti-emetic benefits.
Recommendation – Dyspeptic syndromes, gastrointestinal atony, bloating, slow digestion, constipation, inflammations, colic in infants, colitis, enterocolitis, impaired development of breast and other female characters, menstrual disorders, menopausal disorders, insomnia, obesity.